- - - Chapter 19: Epilogue - - -

In the time period after 1776, there developed the fuel-saving kitchen range with closed-in-fire between oven and hot-water tank, hot and cold running water, the use of flushing toilets, Edmund Cartwright's power weaving machine, Samuel Crompton's mule for spinning many threads by waterpower in 1779, James Watt's steam engine with steam pushing the piston both ways as well as rotary motion and used in many kinds of factories instead of water power, Henry Bessimer's inexpensive low carbon steel in 1856, iron and steel bridges and ships, drilling and use of oil and natural gas as fuel, Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" opining that competition of the market could distribute resources best, Thomas Paine's "Rights of Man", free trade, democracy, popular elections, secret ballots, universal suffrage, civil service without patronage, Mary Wollstonecraft's "Vindication of the Rights of Women", university education for women (University of London), policemen (in London in 1829), clipper ships (the final development of sailing before steam), percussion caps on guns, Periodic Chart of chemical elements, college degrees in biology, chemistry, and physics, geology, Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, quantum theory, laws of thermodynamics that the energy of the universe is a constant amount but entropy always increases, computers, decoding of the DNA sequence, Charles Darwin's evolution, Joseph Lister's disinfectant in 1867, Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine, Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease, anesthetics, aspirin, insulin, penicillin, antibiotics, surgery to replace body parts, tampon, contraceptive pill, discovery of planet Uranus by observation and thence of Neptune and Pluto by calculation from discrepancies in Uranus' orbit, Hubble space telescope, Big Bang Theory, buses (horse-drawn from 1829 with 18 passengers), subways, trains (1804), public railway (1825, goods drawn by engine and passengers by horse), steam ships, steel ships, aircraft carriers, submarines, tanks, friction matches, chewing gum, pajamas, gas street lamps, traffic lights and signs, ambulances, concrete and asphalt highways, census in 1801, children's playgrounds, knee length dresses, chemical artificial fertilizers, substitution of steel for iron, trade unions, digital watches, wrist watches, compact disks, intelligence tests, personality tests, wool-combing machine, statistical analysis, Bell curves, standard deviations, United Nations, carpet sweeper, vacuum cleaner, central heating, apartment high rises, business skyscrapers, electricity, electric lights, sewing machines, water closets in richer houses (after 1778), cholera epidemics, sewers for waste disposal, industrial revolution factories, labor strikes, cars, tractors, Charles Dickens, ice boxes and refrigerators, telephones, central heating with radiators, hot water heaters by gas, gas ovens, humidifiers, canned food, four- pronged forks, suits of matching jackets and trousers, zippers, velcro, wall-to-wall carpeting, popular elections, airplanes, photography, record players, frozen food; cast iron kitchen range for cooking, baking, and boiling; radio, television, plastics, submarines, economics, multinational corporations, weather forecasting, braille, airplanes, space ship to moon, factory assembly lines, washing machines, dishwashers, sewing machine, microwave ovens, copier machines, DNA evidence, nuclear bomb and nuclear energy, guided missiles, quartz watches, bicycles, artificial insemination and invitro fertilization, investment advice, retirement planning, amusement parks, catalogue buying, labor contracts, childrens' summer camps, teenage culture, synthetic materials, typewriters, cardboard boxes, marketing studies, factory assembly line, gene-mapping, animal cloning, internet, hiking and camping trips, world travel vacations, telegraph, word processing, gas, oil, research, credit cards, dental floss, camcorders, mass production, nursing homes, cameras, copy machines, wheelchairs, hospital operations, artificial limbs, organ transplants, pharmacies, public circulating libraries, children's playgrounds, cosmetic surgery, physical exercising equipment, vitamin pills, sports clubs, condominiums, molecules, chromosomes, observatories, radar, sonar, nutrition, supermarkets, disability insurance, liability insurance, chemical fertilizers, DDT, record players, video tape recorders, retirement homes, movies;, planned obsolescence, box-spring mattresses, brain scans, x-rays, organized professional sports, dry cleaners, foreign embassies, psychiatry, veterinarians, drug abuse, wage garnishment, tractors, lawnmowers, breeding zoos, world wars, nuclear deterrence, fingerprinting, forensic evidence, toxic waste, acid rain, elevators, picture windows, sewing machines, automation, cybernetics, pizza delivery, health insurance, Walt Disney, satellite transmission, radiocarbon dating, ice cream, air conditioning, ball point pens, school blackboards, bullets in 1890s, electronic mail, first law of thermodynamics: the conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics: potential energy turns into high-temperature thermal energy and finally into low-temperature thermal energy, but these processes are not reversible. The science of philology, on the meaning and history of words began the concept of a natural development of languages which conflicted with the theological view that God had created all the different languages when he punished man for trying to build an edifice to heaven by destroying the Tower of Babel and dispersing the people into all parts of the world with different languages derived from the original: Hebrew, so that they could not communicate with each other. The science of geology developed the concept of tremendous changes in the earth's surface which altered horizontal layers of deposits, in which there were fossils, which challenged the biblical notion of a world and all its animals created in a week. In 1784, Lord Henry Cavendish proved that the sole result of mixing hydrogen with oxygen was water, thus disproving the theory of the four elements of air, earth, fire, and water. In the United States, there was no king, a separation of the executive, the legislative, and the judicial; a separation of church and state, and no aristocratic titles.

In this time period the development of law includes abandonment of common law crimes such as seditious libel in the United States, negligence and duty of due care in the United States replacing the English strict liability for torts, substitution of the caveat emptor doctrine for the English sound price doctrine in contract law in the United States, truth as a defense to charge of libel in the United States, repeal in England of seven year requirement for apprentices in 1814, married women's property acts beginning 1839: (1. right to sue and be sued, 2. right to her own earnings, 3. right to own real and personal property, 4. right to make contracts 5. right to stay in family homestead with children, right to custody of children if husband abandons her), divorce in England by courts in 1857, in United States extension of grounds for divorce beyond adultery, bigamy, and desertion to cruel treatment, habitual drunkenness, and conviction of a felony and finally no-fault divorce, decline of father's paramount claim to the custody of his minor children in the absence of a strong showing of misconduct or unfitness, tender years doctrine (in England in 1839 mother to have custody of child under seven and to have access over seven) and then best interests of child doctrine in custody disputes, legal obligation for parents to support their minor children, adoption about the 1850s; in England allowance of women attorneys in 1922, women to vote in 1928, adultery by a husband to be adjudged as culpable as adultery by a wife in 1923, the rights of a mother over her child to be equal to those of a father in 1924, and the rights of a woman to property to be the same as those of a man in 1926; child labor laws, full religious freedom with admission of nonconformists to the two universities in England in 1871, probable cause instead of suspicion for search and seizure, mandamus, rule against perpetuities, mandatory secondary education, kidnapping, false impersonation, liens, obscenity, estoppel for detrimental reliance on a promise, unjust enrichment, pensions, trademarks and unfair competition, antitrust, privacy, freedom of thought, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, bankruptcy, civil rights, union organizing laws, laws on discrimination due to race, sex, ethnic or national origin, disability, age, and sexual preference; sexual harassment and stalking laws, product liability, international law, environmental laws protecting air and water quality, workers compensation, unemployment compensation, controlled substances, intellectual property law; and contingency fees only in the United States,

In England, there was an end of trial by combat in 1819, of compurgation in 1833, and of benefit of clergy. In 1820, there were 160 offences in England with the death penalty, including stealing from a dwelling house to the value of 40s., stealing from a shop to a value of 5s., and stealing anything privily from the person. The penalty for treason was still drawing and quartering. It was a privilege of the peerage to be immune from any punishment upon a first conviction of felony. As of 1823, church courts could no longer decide cases of perjury; as of 1855, no cases of defamation, but only church matters. Hearsay rules and exceptions were developed in the 1800s. In 1816, jurors were to have no knowledge except the evidence accepted at court. In 1837, counsel for a person indicted for high treason could examine and cross- examine witnesses. In 1839, a defendant could see the written record of evidence against him. In 1898, the accused was allowed to give evidence. Pleaders do not have to specify the form of action relied on, but rather give facts which give rise to a cause of action.

Judicial procedure includes grand juries, which hear evidence, court transcript by court stenographers, discovery, depositions, and presumption of innocence (after Salem witch trials in the United States). The United States changed judicial procedure in several respects: parties were allowed to testify, writ pleading was abandoned, and prisons were used for reforming prisoners. Debtors prisons were abolished. Also, the law was seen not as divinely inspired eternal law to be found by judges, but law made by man to suit the times. State judges served for life during good behavior; they could be removed by the procedure of impeachment. In some states, judges were elected. There were privileges on testimony such as attorney-client, priest-confessor, and husband- wife.

Share on Twitter Share on Facebook